Reprinted with permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd:
Neuropsychopharmacology 38(11):2220-2230, copyright 2013
FST=forced swim test, TST=tail suspension test, UCMS=unpredictable chronic mild stress
Cuccurazzu et al, 2013: Acetyl-L-carnitine, a NF-kB pathway activating pro-neurogenesis compound, reversed CMS induced depressive like behavior. (d)-D- ALC reverses CMS induced increase in immobility in the tail suspension test.(e)- D- ALC not only reverses CMS induced immobility increase in the forced swim test, but actually decrease it compared to control.
Willner P, Towell A, Sampson D, Sophokleous S, Muscat R (1987) Reduction of sucrose preference by chronic unpredictable mild stress, and its restoration by a tricyclic antidepressant. Psychopharmacology 93:358-364
Cuccurazzu B, Bortolotto V, Valente MM, Ubezio F, Koverech A, Canonico PL, Grilli M (2013) Upregulation of mglu2 receptors via nf-kappab p65 acetylation is involved in the proneurogenic and antidepressant effects of acetyl-l-carnitine. Neuropsychopharmacology 38(11):2220-2230