Clinical Scores

EAE score – This score evaluates the severity of symptoms in an animal model of induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Animals are scored daily for neurological symptoms according to the EAE clinical severity scale: 0 = asymptomatic; 1 = partial loss of tail tonicity; 2 = tail paralysis; 3 = hind limb weakness; 4 = hind limb paralysis; 5 = 4-limb paralysis; 6 = death.

[This test is applicable to rats and mice].

Reference:

Kassis I, Grigoriadis N, Gowda-Kurkalli B, Mizrachi-Kol R, Ben-Hur T, Slavin S, Abramsky O, Karussis D (2008) Neuroprotection and immunomodulation with mesenchymal stem cells in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Arch Neurol 65(6):753-761


ALS score – This test evaluates the severity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a genetic  animal ALS model. Onset of disease-related weakness is defined as a sustained decrease of more than 30% of baseline maximum running distance. “Survival” is determined by an artificial endpoint: mice unable to right themselves 30 seconds after being placed on their sides are scored as “dead” and sacrificed.

[This test is applicable to rats and mice].

Reference:

Marc G, Leah R, Ofira E, Oded A, Zohar A, Hanna R (2013) Presymptomatic treatment with acetylcholinesterase antisense oligonucleotides prolongs survival in ALS (G93A-SOD1) mice. BioMed Research International. 845345.


Prion score –This test evaluate the progression and development of symptom severity in mice infected with prion disease pathogens. The score is based on the following landmarks: (1)- hind limbs weakness. (2)- hind limb partial paralysis. (3)- full paralysis in one limb. (4) Full hind limb paralysis. (5)- Death.

[This test is applicable mice only]

Reference:

Friedman-Levi Y, Meiner Z, Canello T, Frid K, Kovacs GG, Budka H, Avrahami D, Gabizon R (2011) Fatal prion disease in a mouse model of genetic e200k creutzfeldt-jakob disease. PLoS Pathog 7(11):e1002350


NSS (neurological severity score) – This score aims to evaluate the effect of disease on overall neurological function, including motor function, alertness and behavior. The score consists of 10 individual clinical parameters including motor function, alertness, and physiological behavior. 1 point is given for failure on the task and no points for succeeding . A maximal NSS of 10 points indicates severe neurological dysfunction, with failure on all tasks.

[This test is applicable to rats and mice]

References:

Stahel PF, Shohami E, Younis FM, Kariya K, Otto VI, Lenzlinger PM, Grosjean MB, Eugster HP, Trentz O, Kossmann T, Morganti-Kossmann MC (2000) Experimental closed head injury: Analysis of neurological outcome, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, intracranial neutrophil infiltration, and neuronal cell death in mice deficient in genes for pro-inflammatory cytokines. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 20(2):369-380

Thau-Zuchman O, Shohami E, Alexandrovich AG, Trembovler V, Leker RR (2012) The anti-inflammatory drug carprofen improves long-term outcome and induces gliogenesis after traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 29(2): 375-384.


Myasthenia gravis score

This scale enables us to compare the clinical severity of myasthenia gravis symptoms in experimental rodents. There are four categories of severity of motor impairments and changes in body weight. The Mysthenia Gravis Score has the following categories ” (0) no weakness or fatigue, (1) mildly decreased activity, weak grip with fatigue, weight loss >3% body weight in one week; (2) moderate weakness accompanied by weak grip, 5-10%, weight loss (3) moderate-severe weakness, hunched back posture at rest, head down and forelimb digit flexed, tremulous ambulation,10% weight loss; and (4) severe general weakness, weak grip, weight loss >10%.”

Reference:

Gur-Wahnon D, Mizrachi T, Wald-Altman S, Al-Roof Higazi A, Brenner T (2014) Tissue plasminogen activator involvement in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis: Aggravation and therapeutic potential. J Autoimmun S0896-8411(13)00164-9