Motor Scores

Open field – This test evaluates animal motor activity as well as anxiety levels. Animals are placed in the corner of an arena. For the determined period of time, total distance traversed, velocity and sojourn in arena center and periphery are tracked and calculated.

[This test is applicable to rats and mice].

References:

Rosenmann H, Grigoriadis N, Eldar-Levy H, Avital A, Rozenstein L, Touloumi O, Behar L, Ben-Hur T, Avraham Y, Berry E, Segal M, Ginzburg I, Abramsky O (2008) A novel transgenic mouse expressing double mutant tau driven by its natural promoter exhibits tauopathy characteristics. Exp Neurol 212 (1): 71-84

Choleris E, Thomas AW, Kavaliers M, Prato FS (2001) A detailed ethological analysis of the mouse open field test: effects of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and an extremely low frequency pulsed magnetic field. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 25(3):235-260


Catalepsy test – This test evaluates the presence of features such as rigidity and difficulty in movement. Animal’s forepaws are placed over a horizontal bar at a height of 5 cm. Time elapsing from placement of the paws until both are removed by the animal is recorded, with a cutoff of 2minues. Trials are repeated (at 20 minute intervals) 3 times for each animal and averages are calculated.

[This test is applicable to rats and mice].

Reference:

Perez FA, Palmiter RD. (2005) Parkin-deficient mice are not a robust model of parkinsonism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 102:2174-9.


Grip test – This test evaluate the effect of neuromuscular disease on muscle strength and function. Total peak force (in gram force/gram body weight) is determined using an electronic Grip Strength Meter. Muscle strength measurements of both fore- and hind limbs are performed, with five measurements done for each animal. The three highest measurements are averaged to give the strength score. Animals are allowed to rest for 10 minutes between fore- and hind limb measurements.

[This test is applicable to rats and mice].

Reference:

Dadush O, Aga-Mizrachi S, Ettinger K, Tabakman R, Elbaz M, Fellig Y, Yanay N, Nevo Y (2010) Improved muscle strength and mobility in the dy(2j)/dy(2j) mouse with merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy treated with glatiramer acetate. Neuromuscul Disord 20(4):267-272


Rotarod – This test evaluates motor-associated functions such as freedom of movement, flexibility, endurance and balance. In a day long test animals are placed on the rotarod and the rotation of the device is accelerated from 2.5 rpm to maximal 40 rpm during 4 minutes. Latency to fall from the device is measured unless the 4 minutes cutoff time has elapsed. Three trials are conducted (20 minute intervals) and averages are calculated.

[This test is applicable to rats and mice].

References:

Greenbaum L, Lifschytz T, Zozulinsky P, Broner EC, Slonimsky A, Kohn Y, Lerer B (2012) Alteration in RGS2 expression level is associated with changes in haloperidol induced extrapyramidal features in a mutant mouse model. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 22(5): 379-386

Yang W, Chen L, Ding Y, Zhuang X, Kang UJ (2007) paraquat induces dopaminergic dysfunction and proteasome impairment in dj-1-deficient mice. Hum Mol Genet 16(23):2900-2910


Cylinder test – This test aims to determine the presence and extent of movement lateralization, indicative on unilateral neurological damage. The animal is placed in a clear plexiglass cylinder. Each contact of the forepaws (either left or right) with the cylinder (vertical exploration movements) is scored, and simultaneous contacts with both forepaws are scored independently. The laterality index is calculated as:  [contacts(left)-contacts(right)]/[contacts(left)+contacts(right)+contacts(both forepaws)].

[This test is applicable to rats and mice]

Reference:

Balkaya M, Krober J, Gertz K, Peruzzaro S, Endres M (2013) Characterization of long-term functional outcome in a murine model of mild brain ischemia. J Neurosci Methods 213(2):179-187